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Modern Language Association (MLA)

STYLE GUIDE

MLA Style

examples from or based on

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

________________________________________________________________________

BIBLIOGRAPHY EXAMPLES

BOOK – SINGLE AUTHOR

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957.
BOOK – MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR

Bondanella, Peter, and Julia Conaway Bondanella, eds. Dictionary of Italian Literature. Westport:
Greenwood, 1979.
A MULTIVOLUME WORK

Daiches, David. A Critical History of English Literature. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. New York: Ronald, 1970. 2 vols.
A WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY

  Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun. Black Theater: A Twentieth-Century Collection of the Work of
              Its Best Playwrights. Ed. Lindsay Patterson. New York: Dodd, 1971. 221-76.

ARTICLE FROM JOURNAL (continuous paging in volume)

Spear, Karen. “Building Cognitive Skills in Basic Writers.” Teaching English in the Two Year College
9 (1983): 91-98.
ARTICLE FROM JOURNAL (each issue paged separately)

Monk, Patricia. “Frankenstein’s Daughters: The Problems of the Feminine Image in Science Fiction.”
Mosaic 13.3-4 (1980): 15-27.
ARTICLE FROM NEWSPAPER

Dalin, Damon. “A $7 Greeting Card? Yes, But Listen To The Melody It Will Play For You.” Wall Street
Journal 10 May 1983, eastern ed.: D37.
REFERENCE BOOK ARTICLE – UNSIGNED

“Graham, Martha.” Who’s Who of American Women. 13th ed. 1983-84.
REFERENCE BOOK ARTICLE – SIGNED

Chiappini, Luciano. “Este, House of.” Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 1974 ed
WORLD WIDE WEB BASED RESOURCE

Churchyard, H. “Pride and Prejudice—Notes on Education, Marriage, Status of Women, etc.” Jane
Austen Information Page 1994-95. Online. Internet. 28 May 1995. Available
HTTP: uts.cc.utexas.edu/~churchh/pptopic2.html

The list of works cited begins on a new page at the end of the scholarly work; center and title each page with “Works Cited”; number each page continuing the sequence of the text. Use parenthetical notes in the text (see next page) to specify what you derived from the list of works cited.

Each citation generally has three main divisions, each followed by a period and two spaces: the author’s name reversed for alphabetizing, the title, and the publishing data. Each entry begins flush with the left margin; if the entry is more than one line long, indent each subsequent line five paces. The entire list should be double spaced between entries and within entries.

Alphabetize the citations by the author’s last name; if the author’s last name is unknown, alphabetize the entry by the first word in the title other than an article.

These citations are examples of only the most commonly used resources. For citation examples of other kinds of source materials or more specific information refer to MLA Handbook for Writers of Research papers.

 

PARENTHETICAL NOTE EXAMPLES

ONE WORK BY SINGLE AUTHOR

Frye has argued this point before (178-85). [if name appears as part of the narrative]
This point has been argued before (Frye 178-85).
ONE WORK BY TWO OR MORE AUTHORS

  Others, like Wellek and Warren (310-315), hold an opposite point of view.
  Others hold an opposite point of view (e.g., Wellek and Warren 310-315).
CORPORATE AUTHORS

In 1963, the prediction was…(United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa, 79-86).
The Commission on the Humanities has concluded that… (69).
WORKS WITH NO AUTHOR OR WITH AN ANONYMOUS AUTHOR

  According to the Handbook of Korea, much Korean sculpture… (241-47).
  Later, the characters are confronted by tragedy (“Joy Ride”).
TWO OR MORE WORKS WITHIN SAME PARENTHESES

  (Frye 42; Bree 101-33)
  (National Committee 25-35; Potter et al., vol. 1)
PART OF AN ARTICLE OR SINGLE-VOLUME BOOK

  Kenneth Clark has raised some interesting questions (1-5, 12-13).
  A 1983 report found a decline…(Hook 10).
PART OF A MULTIVOLUME WORK

  Parties underwent profound changes between 1945-72 (Schlesinger, vol.4)
  Daiches is useful on the Restoration (2:538-89)

The above examples are a way of specifying what you have derived from the sources listed in your bibliography or “works cited” list. (2 examples are provided for each kind of note) They belong within the text of your work. Usually the author’s last name and page number are all that is needed. If no author is given in the source, use the title.

These parenthetical references should be brief and few; but, don’t sacrifice providing accurate credit for the work you used. Place the parenthetical reference as near the material it documents as possible yet where a natural pause in reading occurs (like the end of a sentence).

* These citations are examples of only the most commonly used resources. For citation examples of other kinds of source materials or more specific information refer to MLA Handbook for Writers of Research papers.

 

ENDNOTE EXAMPLES

BOOK – SINGLE AUTHOR

                  1 Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957) 52.
BOOK – MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR

              2 Peter Bondanella, and Julia Conaway Bondanella, eds., Dictionary of Italian Literature
  (Westport: Greenwood, 1979) 52-57.
A MULTIVOLUME WORK

                 3 David Daiches, A Critical History of English Literature, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (New York: Ronald, 1970) 2:538-39.
A WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY

                4 Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun, Black Theater: A Twentieth-Century Collection of the Work of Its Best Playwrights, ed. Lindsay Patterson (New York: Dodd, 1971) 221-76.
ARTICLE FROM JOURNAL (continuous paging in volume)

5 Karen Spear, “Building Cognitive Skills in Basic Writers,” Teaching English in the Two Year College 9 (1983): 91-98.
ARTICLE FROM JOURNAL (each issue paged separately)

6 Patricia Monk, “Frankenstein’s Daughters: The Problems of the Feminine Image in Science Fiction,” Mosaic13.3-4 (1980): 15-27.
ARTICLE FROM NEWSPAPER

7 Damon Dalin, “A $7 Greeting Card? Yes, But Listen To The Melody It Will Play For You,” Wall Street Journal10 May 1983, eastern ed.: 37.
REFERENCE BOOK ARTICLE – UNSIGNED

           8 “Graham, Martha.” Who’s Who of American Women, 13th ed. 1983-84.: 43-44.
REFERENCE BOOK ARTICLE – SIGNED

9 Luciano Chiappini, “Este, House of.” Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia, 1974 ed.: 27-29.
WORLD WIDE WEB BASED RESOURCE

               10 H. Churchyard “Pride and Prejudice—Notes on Education, Marriage, Status of Women, etc.” Jane Austen Information Page 1994-95. Online. Internet. 28 May 1995. Available HTTP: uts.cc.utexas.edu/~churchh/pptopic2.html

 

Endnotes are another way of identifying sources used within your work. Just place a number within your text near the place where you refer or quote another’s work. Start with the number 1 and proceed (2,3,…) as far as needed.

All notes should appear at the end of the scholarly work (endnotes); start them on a new page; center and title the page “Notes”; number all notes pages in sequence with the text. Each note citation is indented five spaces from the left margin; precede each entry with the note number typed slightly above the line; leave a space between the number and the entry.

When citing the same work more than once, a shortened form is used after a full entry has been given. The shortened version is brief and clear — enough to identify the work. The author’s last name followed by the relevant page numbers is usually adequate. (i.e. 4 Frye 345-47.)

When citing two or more works by the same author — for example, Northrop Frye’s Anatomy of Criticism as well as his Critical Path –  use a shortened version of the title should follow the author’s last name in references after the first. (i.e. 9 Frye, Anatomy 278. 10 Frye, Critical 1-10.) The information is repeated even when two notes in sequence refer to the same work. The abbreviations “ibid.” and “op. cit.” are no longer used.

* These citations are examples of only the most commonly used resources. For citation examples of other kinds of source materials or more specific information refer to MLA Handbook for Writers of Research papers.