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American Psychological Association (APA)


APA Style

Examples from or based on

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

Reference List Examples

The reference list appears at the end of your work. It contains only those materials cited in the text of your work.

Book – Single author

Bernstein, T.M. (1965). The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage. New York:Atheneum.

Book – Two authors

Strunk, W., Jr. & White, E.B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Book – More than two authors

Fanagan, J.C., Dailey, J., Shaycroft, M., Gorham, W., Orr, D., & Goldberg, I. (1962). Design for a study of American youth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Book – Corporate Author

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Article or chapter from book

Hartley, J.T., Harker, J.O., & Walsh, D.A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions inadult development of learning and memory. In L.W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980’s:Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Article from journal (continuous pagination in volume)

Piavio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind’s eye. Memory & Cognition, 3, 635-647.

Article from journal (paginated by issue)

Becker, L.J., & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues,37(2), 1-7.

Article from magazine

Gardner, H. (1981, December). Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today, 18, 70-76.

Article from newspaper

Lubin, J.S. (1980, December 5). On idle: The unemployed shun much mundane work, at least for a while. The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A25.

Encyclopedia article – signed

Brislin, R.W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology. Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 319-327).     New York: John Wiley.

Internet site

See Electronic Reference Formats Recommended by the American Psychological Association             (http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html)

One work by single author

In a recent study of reaction times (Smith, 1993) [first citation in text] Smith (1993) compared reaction times [if name appears as part of the narrative]

One work by two authors

Williams and Jones (1999) found

One work by three or more authors

Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner, and Torrington (1993) found [first note] Williams et al. (1993) found [subsequent notes]

Corporate authors

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2001) [first note] (NIMH, 2001) [subsequent notes]

Works with no author or an anonymous author

on free care (“Study Finds,” 2002) [title of article or chapter] the book College Bound Seniors(1979) [title of book]

Authors with the same surname

S.E. Dykes (1983) and B.A. Dykes (1980) also found

Two or more works within same parentheses

Past research (Zalichin, 1998, 1999) [2 or more works by same author] Several studies (Mullaney, 1998; Talpers, 2001) [2 or more works by different authors] Several studies (Bruce, 1990a, 1990b, 1990c) [same author with same publication dates]

Direct quotation

Cooper (2002) stated that “relational phenomena are inherently dynamic and time-dependent.” (p. 778)

* For additional examples and more specific information, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.

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