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American Psychological Association (APA)

STYLE GUIDE

APA Style

Examples from or based on

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
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Reference List Examples

The reference list appears at the end of your work. It contains only those materials cited in the text of your work.

Book – Single author

Bernstein, T.M. (1965). The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage. New York:Atheneum.

Book – Two authors

Strunk, W., Jr. & White, E.B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Book – More than two authors

Fanagan, J.C., Dailey, J., Shaycroft, M., Gorham, W., Orr, D., & Goldberg, I. (1962). Design for a study of American youth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Book – Corporate Author

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Article or chapter from book

Hartley, J.T., Harker, J.O., & Walsh, D.A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions inadult development of learning and memory. In L.W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980’s:Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Article from journal (continuous pagination in volume)

Piavio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind’s eye. Memory & Cognition, 3, 635-647.

Article from journal (paginated by issue)

Becker, L.J., & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues,37(2), 1-7.

Article from magazine

Gardner, H. (1981, December). Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today, 18, 70-76.

Article from newspaper

Lubin, J.S. (1980, December 5). On idle: The unemployed shun much mundane work, at least for a while. The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A25.

Encyclopedia article – signed

Brislin, R.W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology. Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 319-327).     New York: John Wiley.

Internet site

See Electronic Reference Formats Recommended by the American Psychological Association             (http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html)

One work by single author

In a recent study of reaction times (Smith, 1993) [first citation in text] Smith (1993) compared reaction times [if name appears as part of the narrative]

One work by two authors

Williams and Jones (1999) found

One work by three or more authors

Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner, and Torrington (1993) found [first note] Williams et al. (1993) found [subsequent notes]

Corporate authors

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2001) [first note] (NIMH, 2001) [subsequent notes]

Works with no author or an anonymous author

on free care (“Study Finds,” 2002) [title of article or chapter] the book College Bound Seniors(1979) [title of book]

Authors with the same surname

S.E. Dykes (1983) and B.A. Dykes (1980) also found

Two or more works within same parentheses

Past research (Zalichin, 1998, 1999) [2 or more works by same author] Several studies (Mullaney, 1998; Talpers, 2001) [2 or more works by different authors] Several studies (Bruce, 1990a, 1990b, 1990c) [same author with same publication dates]

Direct quotation

Cooper (2002) stated that “relational phenomena are inherently dynamic and time-dependent.” (p. 778)

* For additional examples and more specific information, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.


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